The establishment of places of worship around Mount Lempuyang is believed to predate the majority of Hindu temples on the island of Bali.The puras of Mount Lempuyang, represented by Pura Lempuyang Luhur, the highest temple in the area, is grouped one complex of pura which represents the Pura Sad Kahyangan Luhur Lempuyang. The temple groups are considered as part of theSad Kahyangan Jagad, or the "six sanctuaries of the world", the six holiest places of worship on Bali. According to Balinese beliefs, they are the pivotal points of the island and are meant to provide spiritual balance to Bali.The temple groups of Mount Lempuyang is also one of the group of temples in Bali known as Pura Kahyangan Padma Bhuwana. Each of the temple in the Pura Kahyangan Padma Bhuwana marked each of the eight cardinal directions. Pura Lempuyang Luhur represents the direction of east (purwa) and the color white. This direction is associated with the domain of Balinese the godIswara.
Pura Penataran Agung is located on the slope of Mount Lempuyang 1.058 metres high above sea level. Mount Lempuyang, also known as Mount Lempuyang Luhur, is one of the most sacred natural points in Bali. The whole Lempuyang mountain was divided into three section which corresponds to the Balinese cosmology, the base of the mountain is known as Sang Ananta Bhoga and corresponds to the mount of Brahma, the middle part of the mountain is known as Sang Naga Basukih and corresponds to mount of Vishnu, while the top of the mountain is known as Sang Naga Taksaka and is considered as mount of Shiva. The sacred-most point of Mount Lempuyang is where the Pura Lempuyang Luhur is built. Pura Penataran Agung, also known as Pura Silawana Hyang Sar, is located in the middle part of the mountain; while at the base of the mountain, the Pura Dalem Dasar Lempuyang is built.
Pura Penataran Agung Lempuyang is oriented toward the top of Mount Lempuyang. The temple compound is divided into three areas: the outer sanctum of the temple (jaba pisanornistaning mandala), the middle sanctum (jaba tengahormadya mandala), and the inner main sanctum (jeroorutamaning mandala).